Ch.d. Iroltuev - Pandita Khambo - Lama, philosopher, founder of the Ashagat Manba Datsang and Emchi by Bolsokhoeva Natalya Danilovna

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Thanks to Buddhism Tibetan medicine, a unique phenomenon of rich Tibetan culture was introduced to the Mongolian ethno-cultural region. In 1712 the one hundred and fifty yellow-hated Tibetan and Mongolian lamas guided by an eminent Tibetan spiritual master Chokyi Nawang Phuntshog (chos kyi ngag dbang phun tshogs) from the famous monastery Cone (co ne) arrived in Transbaikalia in order to spread Buddhism, which formed in Tibet. It is clear; that Buddhism from the beginning of it’s spreading in Transbaikalia was content to compromise to secure peaceful coexistence with Shamanism, the old (pre-Buddhist) faith of Buryats. Shamanism is still alive today and it has its own adherents and cult places, named obos, which are especially numerous on the tops of the sacred mountains or passes. Besides in the ethnic Buryatia Buddhism faced strong opposition of Russian (Orthodox) church, which had a certain support of tsarist government.

The Tibetan Mahayana tradition was spread from Tibet to Mongolia where achieved great popularity in the late sixteen and early seventeen century. Mongolia played an important role in the process of transmission of Tibetan Buddhism, its tradition and culture to the ethnic Buryatia. The geographical nearness of the regions, community of culture and written language favored - promoted penetration of Buddhism into the area of the Buryat ethnos settling. In Transbaikalia, introduction of Tibetan Mahayana Buddhism was one of the important components in the process of formation of the feudal social system. Introduction of Buddhism means its diffusion among a large number of temporal followers, orientated to take new ideas, meditative practices, cults, rituals and ceremonies. The Tibetan Buddhism today has become a worldwide phenomenon. It is equally popular in the Asian and Western countries.

It is considered, that the formation and development of the monastic system of Buddhism in Transbaikalia began from 1730-s. The new religion quickly spread among different Buryat ethnic groups and the majority of the Buryat population became Buddhists. In 1741 according to the order of the Empress Elizabeth Petrovna Buddhism was officially recognized in the Russian Empire. In the year 2001 the Buryats celebrated their 260 anniversary of the official recognition of Buddhism in Russia. Buddhism brought great achievements. It changed the life style, gave new impulse to culture and inspired the creation of monasteries, stupas, statues, painted scrools (thankas) etc[1].

The Buddhist monasteries of Transbaikalia belong to the Gelugpa sect, founded in the early XIVth century by the great reformer of Buddhism and versatile Buddhist scholar the venerable Tshongkhapa (1357-1419). The Tibetan tradition connects with his name the medieval prosperity of the Tibetan Mahayana Buddhism and it’s spreading on huge cultural space of Central Asia. The reforms of Tibetan religious scholar Tshongkhapa introduced the complicated system of the classical monastic education. Tshongkhapa borrowed the volume of curriculum and methods of teaching process from the great Indian missioner, philosopher and translator Atisha (982-1054)[2] from Vikramashila, the most prestigious Buddhist University of the ancient India.

By tradition in Tibet two kinds of monasteries exist[3]. The monasteries of the first type are for ascetic and meditative practices; those of the second type are centers of education and culture. On the extensive territory of the Buryat ethnos settling, the monasteries of the second type were widely spread. The Buddhist monasteries with the specialized faculties were established in Tibet, their proto-types were famous Universities of ancient India and later- the monasteries of such type were founded both in Mongolia and Buryatia. The most spread faculties had been the philosophical (mtshan nyid), tantric (sngags pa), medical (sman ba), Kalacakra (dus ‘khor) with well-elaborated programmes of education intending of long standing studies. The philosophical faculties (mtsan nyid grwa tshang) occupy a special place within the Tibetan classical education as without the knowledge of the completed educational programme students are not aloud to take part in debating. Art of debating is one of the principal components of the Tibetan philosophical education. A unique form of the logical debate among the students is the most important within the Tibetan philosophical education, as the initial part of final monastic examinations. The debates are the main method used during geshe (dge bshes) examinations and are conducted before the audience of a great number of high-ranked monks, teachers (dge rgan) and many thousands of onlookers.

From Tibet the classical monastic education passed to the territory of the ethnic Buryatia via Mongolia. Its system is very specific and complicated. Ten sciences or subjects (rig gnas bcu), consisting of. five major (rig gnas chen lnga) and five minor sciences (rig gnas cung ba lnga) are the fundamentals of the monastic education. It should be noted, that up to now nobody managed in finding the source, in which, for the first time, there had been developed a classification of sciences into five major and five minor ones. This classification influenced upon the formation of the Danjur structure, the second part of the Tibetan Buddhist canon[4], in the base of which is a general scheme of science division into two categories: ordinary (thun mon pa’i rig gnas) and extra-ordinary sciences (thun mon ma yin pa’i gnas).

This classification reflects a religious and philosophical system of Tibetan Mahayana Buddhism. The first of the major sciences is called inner science – “abhyatha vidya” (nang rig pa). It consists of two vehicles – Lakshanayna (mtshan nyid kyi theg pa)[5] and Mantrayna (sngags kyi theg pa)[6]. The remaining four of the five major sciences are grammar (sgra rig/ sabdavidya), medicine (gso rig pa/cikitsavidya), logic (gtan tshigs rig pa/hetuvigya), and technology (bzo rig pa/shilpavidya), though they are considered secular ones, they were incorporated in the system of the Buddhist education in the medieval epoch. It should be noted that technology includes the studies of the Tibetan traditional art and culture. The treatises, concerning this subject are incorporated in the Tibetan Buddhist canon, Danjur. The five minor sciences are poetry, astrology, synonyms. metrics, dance accompanied by music.

Beginning from the middle of the XIXth century the philosophical, medical, tantric and astrological faculties were founded in many Buryat datshangs. Within the classical Tibetan education the study of medicine was very significant, as it belongs to one of the five major sciences In the medical faculties the students learn a great number subjects of the Science of Healing. Fundamentals of Tibetan medical education include learning by heart the main guidance on the theory and practice of Tibetan medicine ‘rGyud bzhi’ (‘Four Medical Tantras’). Tibetan tradition dates this text from the XIIth century. It too is accompanied by the numerous commentaries, among of them the most detailed ‘Vaidurya - onbo,’ (1687-1688), written by Desi Sangye Gyatsho. In addition pharmacological and pharmaceutical guidebooks, pharmacognostical treatises and prescription books were one of the most important components of medical education. This literature represents the systematical account of Tibetan medical science and the necessary textbooks for completion of the education at the manba/medical datshangs. Within the medical education the studies of visual aids in the form of the separated anatomical plates and medical Atlases play very important role. In Tibet the tradition of creation of medical Atlases has rich and long history. The information of Tibetan medical sources allow to saying, that the prototypes of the set of medical thankas had been the early depicted Atlases and the odd different sized anatomical plates. This fine arts material illustrated a number of medical texts.

In 1869[7], an eminent and professional Mongolian traditional doctor (emchi), Chos menramba (chos sman rams pa) established a medical faculty (sman ba grwa tshang) in the Tshugol monastery Tashi Chosphel Ling (bkra shis chos ‘phel ling), Chita region (nowadays Transbaikalia land)[8], which was the first one through out Transbaikalia[9]. He introduced the certain medical rituals, which were needed to heal sick people. The Mongolian doctor arrived from Setshen - Khanovskogo aimak (region) of Mongolia on the invitation of a noted Buryat Buddhist master, the abbot of the Aginsk monastery G.-Z. Tuguldurov (1815 - 1872/73), who filled his post since 1858. He was a son of the Aginsk taisha Tuguldur Toboev. After death of Chos menramba studies of Tibetan medicine interrupted for thirty years. Only in 1899 his brilliant Buryat disciples Guru - Darma Biliktuev began to teach Buryat students to the subject of Tibetan medical culture in the Tschugol datshang. He became the Head of Tschugol medical school, a teacher and a principal tutor of medical disciples[10]. The studies of Tibetan medicine continued at the Tsugol datshang till the mid - thirties of last century.

A curriculum of education in the Tschugol manba datshang was based on the medical programme of the Chagpori (lcags po ri, the Iron Hill) college[10] in Lhasa. Education of the Tshugol medical faculty had a characteristic feature; availability translations of Tibetan medical texts into the old Mongolian vertical script. The question is about Mongolian translations of the ‘rGyud-bzhi’ (‘Four Medical Tantras’), the four-volume treatise on Tibetan medicine and ‘Lhan-thab’ (lhan thabs) or ‘Man ngag Lhan-thab’ (man ngag, lhan thabs) guidance on therapy and clinic, consisting of 133 chapters. ‘Lhan-thab’ was written by Desi Sangye Gyatsho in 1691, as an addition to the third volume of the ‘rGyud-bzhi’, consisting 92 chapters. From my point of view ‘Lhan-thab’ could be classified as a commentary to the third volume, in which clinic and therapy included in the separated branch of medical knowledge. Here the author introduced detailed description of the illnesses, which were known to the period of the XVII th century in Tibet. It was innovative methods in the history of Tibetan medical culture.

Both scriptures were translated by the founder of the Tshugol datshang and its first abbot L-D. Dandarov (1781-1859), in the Buryat chronicles he is known under name Lubsang Dondob Dandarai. Thanks to his profound knowledge, he was able to create fixed equivalents for the translation of Tibetan medical terms into the old Mongolian language and find linguistic analogy in the Mongolian language. It is important, that the conventional equivalents taught from one generation to the next and later they have been used by Buryat compilers of Tibetan-Mongolian dictionaries.

It is clear that by the time of the establishment of the Tshugol medical school, the basic Tibetan medical texts existed in the old Mongolian language. L.-D. Dandarov’s translations of are notable for its scrupulous accuracy. It should be noticed, that the contents of the Mongolian translations of the ‘rGyud-bzhi’ and ‘Lhan-thab’ were more understandable for the Buryat students, than original Tibetan medical texts. We can say, that L.-D. Dandarov discovered the certain special way to understanding the contents of principal Tibetan medical sources. It is necessary to underline, that transmission of medical knowledge from Guru (Teacher) to disciple (slob ma) is considered one of the most important element in learning the theoretical and practical aspects of Tibetan medicine. The volume of acquired knowledge is depended on the qualification of Teacher. He plays a role of highly - educated tutor, and helps to his disciples by professional advices and explanations. Teacher of future emchi could be father or uncle from father’s or mother’s lineage, as a rule they had been lamas and did not have their own children.

Manba datshangs were opened in many Buryat Buddhist monasteries: Aginsk, Egitui, Aninsk, Djida, Yangazhinsk, Kyren, Atshagat and others on the model of the Tshugol medical faculty[11].later.

The School of Tibetan medicine - the Atshagat Arshan (Curative spring) or Atshagat manba datshang was established in 1913. The central building had been the manba dugan, a little wood house, covered by iron roofing, with eight windows. The activity of medical school indissolubly connects with the Atshagat (thub bstan dar rgyas gling) or Shulut datshang, which was a famous centre of education, science and Buddhist culture in Buryatia. The Atshagat manba datshang was founded at the initiative of the most prominent Buryat scholar and perspicacious politician Agvan. Dorjiev (1854-1938) and the Pandita Khambo Lama Chosdzin Dorji Iroltuev (1843-1918). From the very first days of the Atshagat medical school’s existence a Mongolian Emchi-lama Shoisal Sanbon from Setshen - Khanovskogo aimak of Mongolia was a teacher, served at the Otoshi[12] monastery. Mongol Emchi worked only few months and he then left to his mother land. Later several teachers from Mongolia came to the Atshagat manba datshang, but they did not stay for long time.

Agvan.Dorjiev was born in the village Kurbinskii Khara-Shibir of the Zaegraev region of the ethnic Buryatia and was educated in the famous Gomang datshang (sgo sman grwa tshang- ‘many doors’) of the prestigious monastic University Drepung (‘bras spungs) in Tibet. He achieved great success in the area of Buddhist philosophy. Here he granted a highest degree in the field of Buddhist philosophy geshe - lharamba (dge bshes lha rams pa). A.Dorjiev was one of the most learned of the Buryat Buddhist scholars. After completing his studies at the tshan nyid (mtshan nyid) faculty of the Goman datshang, he was selected one of the tutors of the XIIIth Dalai-Lama Ngawang Thubten Gyatsho (ngag dbang thub brtan rgya mtsho, 1876-1933). A.Dorjiev was very astute politician and played very influential role between the Russian tsarist court and Tibetan government of XIIIth Dalai-Lama Thubten Gyatso (thub bstan rgya mtsho, 1876-1933). A.Dorjiev devoted himself to religious exercises and political activities. On his initiative the St. - Petersburg datshang was constructed. It took more than six years (1909-1915) to complete its construction. A.Dorjiev collected a huge amount of money to build the St. - Petersburg Buddhist monastery. In 1913 he conducted the rite of consecration of the monastery in the honour of 300 anniversary of the reign of the Romanov’s dynasty. A.Dorjiev maintained close scientific contact with the coryphaeuses of the oriental science and with influential in the court circle an earl E.E. Ukhtomskii, accompanied the Cesarevitch (Crown prince) Nikolas Aleksadrovich in his long journey in Siberia and the Far East.

Chosdzin Dorji Iroltuev was born in 1843 in the village Narin-Atshagat, located in the Zaigraev region of Buryatia. He was the third son of Irolto Zaisana. Ch. D. Iroltuev in the year 1872 entered the Shulut (Atshagat) datshang as a novice and in one year he got a position of the staff’s lama of this well-known Buddhist monastery. Then he continued his studying in ‘Holy City’ - Lhasa and Mongolia and became a highly-educated Buddhist master and expert in the area of Tibetan medical culture. Ch.D. Iroltuev, receiving his profound Buddhist knowledge in Tibet and Mongolia, was able to use them very skillfully among the Buryats. He was an outstanding Buddhist scholar in the field of the Buddhist medieval sciences, a high rank lama of subtle intellect and a skilled practitioner.

C.-D. Iroltuev was a monk of the Atshagat and Egitui Buddhist monasteries. A. Dorjiev, C.-D. Iroltuev, L. Shagdarov (1869-1931) and L.D. Endonov (1870-1937?) are considered the most eminent figures of the Asthagat medical school, who made a valuable contribution in the development of the Tibetan medical culture in the area of the Buryat ethnos settling.

Thanks to his intellectual abilities and deep knowledge of Dharma and Buddhist philosophy and talent for organization Ch. D. Iroltuev came to the attention of officials of the Russian Empire. In 1895 Ch. D. Iroltuev, who at that time had been a sheretui (abbot) of the Atshagat Buddhist monasteries, obtained the throne Pandita Khambo Lama, Supreme Hierarch of the Buddhists of Eastern Siberia. Recommendation on this high position was given by a military governor of Zabaikalsk oblast Major - General E.O Matshievskii (1845-1910)[13], as according to his authoritative opinion, an abbot of the Atshagat datshang paid high tribute to the serves of Ch. D. Iroltuev, who gave hearty welcome to the Crown Prince Nicolas in 1891[14]. In 1896 he included to be a member of the Buryat delegates, headed by the chief Taisha Ayushiev. The Buryat delegates went to participate in the ritual of coronation of Nicolas the Second in the Uspensky Cathedral of the Moscow Kremlin.

Ch.D. Iroltuev as the Head of the Buryat Buddhists gave a strong religious impulse to the whole of Transbaikalia, moving from one monastery to another. He visited almost all the acting Buddhist monasteries, located through out the ethnic Buryatia, where he delivered the Buddhist teachings, performed special significant religious ceremonies and a large number of rituals. Pandita Khambo Lama composed the collections of prayer books, displayed solicitude concerning the training the highly - qualified lamas in the field of the mtshan nyid (philosophy), theology and medicine. Ch.D. Iroltuev supervised activities of the datshangs through out Transbaikalia. He had been the Head of the school for young novices, which was officially opened by the tsarist government in the Gusinoozersk (Tamchin) datshang (est. in 1741)[15]. It was a special Buddhist Institution, as its graduates’ had a unique opportunity to pretend to be the staff Lamas in any Buryat monasteries. In 1741 the eleven Buddhist monasteries existed on the Buryat cultural space. Ch.D. Iroltuev took part in the activities of many committees on the elaboration of projects, laws on the administration by Buddhists. As a prominent religious master Ch.D. Iroltuev had made big efforts in the development of activities of datshangs and construction of the new Buddhist monasteries in different geographical zones of the ethnic Buryatia.

In 1911due to illness Ch. D. Iroltuev denied position of the Pandita Khampo Lama, the medical conclusion was done by well-known physicians in Ulan - Ude A. Leger and M. Tanskii. At the same year he returned from the Residence of Khampo Lamas in Gusinoozersk datshang to his native place and settled in his family house, located in the territory of the Atshagat Arshan. Here Ch. D. Iroltuev continued his active medical practice and healed a great number of sick people from Atshagat region and neighbouring villages. He used the effective Tibetan medicaments, which were produced by hands by himself and his skilled assistants and talented disciples. In addition highly-qualified Emchi Ch. D. Iroltuev prescribed to his patients the curative mineral springs of the Atshagat Arshan.

As it was mentioned above, Ch.D. Iroltuev received his classical Tibetan medical education in Tibet and Mongolia, where he was a brilliant disciple and successful in studying the science of healing (gso ba rig pa). He was one of the most eminent figures in the history of Tibetan medicine of ethnic Buryatia and a skilled Emchi-lama of the Atshagat medical school. Here he treated locals; suffering from serious pathologies. He was familiar with curative plants of the local flora and their medicinal qualities. Ch. D. Iroltuev was a composer of the prescription book (sman sbyor), at present kept at the collection of the History Museum of Buryatia named M.N. Khangalov in Ulan-Ude. It is a bilingual text, written in Tibetan and old Mongol vertical script, which was used as the literary language of Buryats until 1931. The Buryat prescription books classify in two groups: 1. the prescription books written in Tibetan classical language (chos skad), which traditionally considered a language of science and education for intellectual elite in Mongolia and Buryatia. Many highly - educated Mongol and Buryat scholars wrote their works in classical Tibetan The classical Tibetan language played the same role like the Latin for Western countries in the middle epoch. 2. The bilingual prescription books where the Tibetan text is given with its word for word translation into old Mongol. The work of Ch.D. Iroltuev belongs to the second group. According to the famous Buryat scholar D.B.Dashiev, as a rule the bilingual texts with use of horizontal Tibetan language and vertical Mongol are created the certain difficulties for understanding well elaborated Tibetan technical terminology, which was not always a success to the adequate transference into Mongol language.[16] The prescription book of Ch.D. Iroltuev is the most authoritative guidance for the traditional Buryat doctors of several generations. Nowadays it is one of the most important components of the classical medical education at the Non-Government Buddhist Institute ‘Dashi Chos Khor Ling’ named after D. - D. Zayev, the first Buryat Pandita Khambo Lama in the Ivolga datshang (near Ulan-Ude). This Institute was founded in 1991.

Almost in every datshang the physicians used own prescription books, they played role of the specific hand books for traditional Tibetan doctors of Transbaikalia. By tradition the Emchis carry such prescription books in their bags or in bosom and were able to compose the needed medicaments by the bed of seriously ill patients. Those medicines were fresh and were notable for very high qualities. Marginal notes, foot-notes, marks and personal commentaries on blank pages of manuscript and printed books are the traditional rules in many cultures. It would be interesting to mention, that the prescription book of Ch.D. Iroltuev has his own marks done by his hands. Judging by those marks might be concluded he laid stress on studying pharmacognozy and pharmacology of Tibetan medicine and paid special attention to its pharmaceutical practice. Ch.D. Iroltuev organized comparative research of the original Tibetan raw materials from Tibetan practical guidebooks and raw materials described by Buryat scholars with special references to the Transbaikalia adopted plants. It should be noticed, it was a new method of research of Tibetan and Buryat raw materials, with view to learn the curative qualities of the adopted plants of Transbaikalia. It is important to know, the local adopted plants used for the composition of multi-ingredient medicines. Thanks to the creative point of view to such complicated problem and detailed analysis, Ch.D. Iroltuev was able to complete his practical guidebooks.

We can say with certainty due to the efforts of Ch.D. Iroltuev the Atshagat manba datshang became one of the best medical centers of Transbaikalia at the very beginning of the XXth century. At that time in this school about sixty disciples studied. According to the information of an outstanding Buryat ethnographer and the talented collector of materials on Shamanism and Lamaism G.D. Natshov (1912-1942), here Emchi-lamas from the Tunka and Aginsk Buddhist monasteries used to buy effective medicines and receive prescriptions from the highly-qualified doctors of the Atshagat medical school[17].

At the late of XIXth century Ch.-D. Iroltuev did pilgrims to the holy country, India, in order to pay respect to the main Buddhist shrines. On the way back he stopped at the Chzansha Ereltu Dorjan Gegen’s Palace. At that time it was occupied by the Russian troops. We can not say in the present state of our knowledge, how Buryat Buddhist master was able to take out unique Buddhist relics and vast corpus of scriptures and sent them by caravan to Buryatia. The 110 volumes of the Ganjur and 225 volumes of the Danjur in old Mongolian had been among the rarities. Returning to Buryatia Ch.-D.Iroltuev sold the Ganjur to Irdyneyev, an abbot of the Chesan datshang for 25 gold roubles for each volume; the Danjur - to the Khambo - Lama of the Kalmyk clergy Boromandzinov, who in large part financed trip of Ch. - D.Iroltuev to India.

Ch.D. Iroltuev, as a versatile scholar, paid a special attention to the collection of vast body literary sources, scriptures, books, that it is evidence of his exceptional erudition. It is known, his private library, consisted of the 1000 volumes, it was survived at the Chelutaevsk datshang. There are facts, that in 1934 it was taken to the Scientific Library of former Institute of Culture (now the Institute for Mongolian, Buddhist and Tibetan Studies of Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Ulan-Ude). Unfortunately nowadays we do not have any information, concerning the composition and fate of this rich library.

Pandita Khambo Lama Ch.D. Iroltuev traveled to St.-Petersburg, the capital of the Russian Empire, where he and his skilled assistants treated the Empress Maria Fedorovna, the mother of Nicolas the Second. Methods of treatment and remedies of Tibetan medicine had been effective and the Buryat Emchis were awarded by rewards. Ch.D. Iroltuev was decorated with two orders.

In conclusion we have to note, that Chosdzin Dorji Iroltuev was very influential figure in the history of Buddhism and Tibetan medical culture of Transbaikalia. Nowadays Tibetan Buddhism is being revived among the Buryats and we expect deep studies of his productive activities in the different spheres, based on the important materials from various collections of the ethnic Buryatia and different region of Russia.


<references / >
  1. Bolsokhoeva N.D., Soktoeva I.I. Buddhist Painting from Buryatia. Kathmandu, 1998, p. 9.
  2. His Buddhist name is Dipankara Shrijnyana. In Tibetan tradition he is considered the founder of the great kadampa (bka’ gdams pa) sect.
  3. See in detail: B.B. Baradiin. The Buddhist monasteries. A brief survey // Orient. Issue I. St.-Peterburg. 1992, pp. 84-94 (in Russian).
  4. As a rule it consists of 225 bulky volumes. There are many different editions, published in various Printing-Houses of Tibet. It is known the Bejing editions.
  5. Prajnaparamita (phar phyin), Madhyamika (dbu ma), Abhidharma (mngon pa), Vinaya (‘dul ba) and Siddhanta (grub mtha’).
  6. It consists of the four classes of Tantras: Kriya Tantra, Charya Tantra, Yoga Tantra and Annutara-Yoga Tantra.
  7. According to the information of M.A. Kastren, in 1848 within the Gusinoozersk (Tamchin) datshang the qualified Emchi - Lamas had small clinics and taught medicine. - V.P. Girchenko. Russian and Foreign travelers of the XVII, XVIII and first half of the XIX th centuries about Buryat - Mongol. Ulan - Ude, 1939, p. 75.
  8. See in detail: N. Bolsokhoeva. Medical Faculties of Buryat Buddhist Monasteries // AyurVijnana, a Periodical on Indo-Tibetan and Allied Medical Cultures. Vol. No. 6. Issue No. 1. Kalimpong. 1999, pp. 3-9.
  9. See in detail N.D.Bolsokhoeva Medical Schools of the Tschugol and Aginsk medical Schools// Buddhism in Russia. (St. - Petersburg). 2005, pp. 134 -141 (in Rusian); N.D.Bolsokhoeva. Tibetan Medical Schools of the Aga Area (Chita Region) // Asian Medicine. Tradition and Modernity. Brill. Leiden. Vol. 3. No. 2. 2008, pp. 334-346.
  10. It was founded by a versatile Tibetan scholar, a regent of the V Dalai- Lama Nawang Lobsang Gyatso (ngag dbang blo bsang rgya mtsho, 1617-1682) Desi Sangye Gyatsho (sde srid sangs rgyas rgya mtsho) in 1696 on the Iron Hill, located quite opposite the Potala Palace, the former Winter Residence of the Dalai - Lamas.
  11. G.R. Galdanova, K.M. Gerasimova, D.B. Dashiyev and others. Lamaism in Buryatia of the XVII - beginning of the XXth century. Novosibirsk, 1983, pp. 63-64.
  12. The Otoshi is the Mongol name of the Medicine Buddha Bhaishajyaguru (тиб. sman bla).
  13. It is a little known about life and activities of Major - General Evgenii Osipovich Matshievskii. He was a Military Governor of the Zabaikal’sk oblast. He filled this position from the 27 th of May of 1893 until the 10 th of April of 1901. During this time the Zabaikal’sk railway was completed. He was a First Head of the Zabaikal’sk Branch of Russian Geographical Society. He played an important role in the development of education in oblast and made a valuable contribution in the establishment of a museum, public library and anti - plague station in Chita.
  14. Future Russian Emperor Nicolas the Second.
  15. The First Buryat Pandita Khambo Lama D.D. Zayev selected this powerful place for its construction. Since 1809 the Gusinoozersk datshang was the main seat of the Buryat Pandita Khambo Lamas. The Gusinoozersk datshang was the Residence of the Khambo Lamas more than 130 years.
  16. D.B Dashiev. Experiences with Comparative Studies of Tibetan Medical Formulae//AyurVijnana. A Periodical on Indo - Tibetan and Allied Medical Cultures. Vol. 6. Issue No. 1. Kalimpong. Spring, 1999, p. 13.
  17. Centre of Oriental manuscripts and xylographs of the Institute for Mongolian, Buddhist and Tibetan Studies of Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences. Collection of G.-D.Natshov. Inv. 2, rec.26. f..1 (in old Mongol).